Inhibitory costimulatory molecule CD274 expresses in various cancers and contributes to cancer immune evasion by inhibiting T cell activation and proliferation, yet the regulatory mechanisms for CD274 overexpression in cancers are poorly understood. In this study, we discovered a novel mechanism of CD274 expression regulated by miR-570. A guanine-to-cytosine mutation at the 3′-UTR of CD274 mRNA led to CD274 overexpression by disrupting the miR-570 binding. The mutations were widely observed in cancers by sequencing of 276 gastrointestinal cancers (esophageal, gastric, colorectal, hepatocellular, and pancreatic cancers). This mutation was significantly associated with CD274 overexpression in gastric cancer (P = 1.44×10−10) and with the pathological features including differentiation grade, depth of tumor invasion, lymph node metastasis, and tumor-node-metastases (TNM) stage. These findings suggest a novel regulatory mechanism for CD274 overexpression in gastric cancer mediated by miR-570 and a somatic mutation in CD274 3′-UTR, and provide a new insight to gastric carcinogenesis. Hum Mutat 33:480–484, 2012. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.