Familial renal glucosuria (FRG) is characterized by persistent glucosuria despite normal serum glucose and the absence of overt tubular dysfunction. Variants in solute carrier family 5 (sodium–glucose cotransporter), member 2 (SLC5A2) have been reported in FRG patients. However, the functional and expression-related consequences of such variants have been scarcely investigated. In the current study, we studied five FRG families and identified six missense mutations, including four novel variants (c.1051T>C/.(C351R), c.1400T>C/p.(V467A), c.1420G>C/p.(A474P), c.1691G>A/p.(R564Q); RNA not analyzed) and two variants that had been previously reported (c.294C>A/p.(F98L), c.736C>T/p.(P246S); RNA not analyzed). The probands were either heterozygous or compound heterozygous forSLC5A2variants and had glucosuria of 5.9%–19.6 g/day. Human 293 cells were transfected with plasmid constructs to study the expression and function of SLC5A2 variants in vitro. Western blotting revealed that the expression levels of SLC5A2–351R-GFP, SLC5A2–467A-GFP, SLC5A2–474P-GFP, and SLC5A2–564Q-GFP were significantly decreased compared with wild-type SLC5A2-GFP (37%–55%). Confocal microscopy revealed that three variants (c.1400T>C, c.1420G>C, c.1691G>A) resulted in a loss of the punctate membrane pattern typical of wild-type SLC5A2. All variants had a significantly lower transport capacity in than the wild-type control. The current study provides a starting point to further investigate the molecular mechanism of SLC5A2 in FRG families and provides functional clues for antidiabetes drugs.
Variant SLC5A2 proteins had altered expression levels and expression patterns in addition to significantly lower glucose transport capacity upon reconstitution in cultured cells. Our study provides functions clues regarding the role of the SLC5A2 molecule in FRG families and provides useful clues for the study of anti-diabetes drugs.