Guidelines for assisted procreation impose a special responsibility upon physicians for the health of the expected child because of their active role in inducing pregnancy. Therefore, careful clinical evaluation of both partners has to precede every application of these methods. Risks for the mother’s health or the development of the child count as a relative contraindication for a treatment. To balance these relative contraindications, the existing risk factors have to be recognized through screening examination. If a chronic infection occurs in the male partner, prevention for the female partner is theoretically possible by using a condom. As this inhibits a pregnancy, at least in cases of human immunodeficiency virus and hepatitis C virus infections, realization of a pregnancy requires assisted procreation. The main question in these cases is whether infectious particles can be eliminated by sperm processing to ensure the safe treatment of the healthy female partner.