To raise awareness about the accessory and cavitated uterine masses (ACUM) with functional endometrium as a different entity from adult adenomyosis and to highlight the importance of a correct diagnosis, we studied four new cases of ACUM and 15 cases reported as juvenile cystic adenomyoma (JCA) by reviewing the literature from the last year. This entity is problematic because of a broad differential diagnosis, including rudimentary and cavitated uterine horns; and is generally underdiagnosed, being more frequent than previously thought.METHODS
We report four cases of young women who underwent surgery in our hospital from January to July 2011 after presenting with an ACUM. We also reviewed and tabulated the cases from literature beginning in 2010. Main outcome measures were diagnostic tools, surgical and histopathological findings and improvement of symptoms.RESULTS
The addition of the four cases reported here to the 15 published as JCA raises the total number of cases of ACUMs to 19, which is more than all of the cases reported prior to 2010. In our cases, it is interesting to highlight that one of them also had an adjacent accessory rudimentary tube and another had two ACUMs at the same location. All patients suffered from severe dysmenorrhea and pelvic pain and were young women. Suspicion, transvaginal ultrasound and magnetic resonance image were found to be the best diagnostic tools. Most of the cases were treated by laparoscopic tumorectomy.CONCLUSIONS
ACUMs are generally underdiagnosed and often reported as JCAs but they are not adenomyosis. Early surgical treatment involving the laparoscopic or laparotomic removal of the mass could prevent the usual prolonged suffering of these young women. In our opinion, this entity is a new variety of Müllerian anomaly.