Pre-term birth and low birth weight following preimplantation genetic diagnosis: analysis of 88 010 singleton live births following PGD and IVF cycles

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Abstract

STUDY QUESTION

Is PGD associated with the risk of adverse perinatal outcomes such as pre-term birth (PTB) and low birth weight (LBW)?

SUMMARY ANSWER

There was no increase in the risk of adverse perinatal outcomes of PTB, and LBW following PGD compared with autologous IVF.

WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY

Pregnancies resulting from ART are associated with a higher risk of pregnancy complications compared with spontaneously conceived pregnancies. The possible reason of adverse obstetric outcomes following ART has been attributed to the underlying infertility itself and embryo specific epigenetic modifications due to the IVF techniques. It is of interest whether interventions such as embryo biopsy as performed in PGD affect perinatal outcomes.

STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION

Anonymous data were obtained from the Human Fertilization and Embryology Authority (HFEA), the statutory regulator of ART in the UK. The HFEA has collected data prospectively on all ART performed in the UK since 1991. Data from 1996 to 2011 involving a total of 88 010 singleton live births were analysed including 87 571 following autologous stimulated IVF ± ICSI and 439 following PGD cycles.

PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS, SETTING, METHODS

Data on all women undergoing either a stimulated fresh IVF ± ICSI treatment cycle or a PGD cycle during the period from 1996 to 2011 were analysed to compare perinatal outcomes of PTB and LBW among singleton live births. Logistic regression analysis was performed adjusting for female age category, year of treatment, previous IVF cycles, infertility diagnosis, number of oocytes retrieved, whether IVF or ICSI was used and day of embryo transfer.

MAIN RESULTS AND THE ROLE OF CHANCE

There was no increase in the risk of PTB and LBW following PGD versus autologous stimulated IVF ± ICSI treatment, unadjusted odds of PTB (odds ratio (OR) 0.68, 95% CI: 0.46–0.99) and LBW (OR 0.56, 95% CI: 0.37–0.85). After adjusting for the potential confounders, there was again no increase in the risk of the adverse perinatal outcomes following PGD: PTB (adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 0.66, 95% CI: 0.45–0.98) and LBW (aOR 0.58, 95% CI: 0.38–0.88).

LIMITATIONS, REASONS FOR CAUTION

Although the analysis was adjusted for a number of important confounders, the data set had no information on confounders such as smoking, body mass index and the medical history of women during pregnancy to allow adjustment. There was no information on the stage of embryo at biopsy, whether blastomere or trophectoderm biopsy.

WIDER IMPLICATIONS FOR THE FINDINGS

The demonstration that PGD is not associated with higher risk of PTB and LBW provides reassurance towards its current expanding application.

STUDY FUNDING/COMPETING INTEREST(S)

No funding was obtained. There are no competing interests to declare.

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