Antibody levels against hepatitis B virus after hepatitis B vaccination in Egyptian diabetic children and adolescents

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Abstract

Background:

The remarkable effectiveness of universal infantile hepatitis B (HB) vaccination is well documented in many countries. Nevertheless, the influence of insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) on the sero-protective level of antibody to hepatitis B surface antigen (anti-HBs) after HB vaccination has not been investigated in Egyptian children. The aim of this study was to investigate long-term anti-HBs sero-protective levels after infantile HB vaccination in Egyptian IDDM children.

Results:

The mean age of the healthy children was 10.86 ± 1.21 y (range, 5.5-15 y); 49 (45.8%) were boys and 58 (54.2%) were girls. The mean age of the IDDM children was 10.29 ± 3.04 y (range, 4-17 y); 32 (50.8%) were boys and 31 (49.2%) were girls. There were no significant differences between the healthy and IDDM children with respect to age and sex (p > 0.05). Among the 107 healthy children, 43 (40%) did not have a protective anti-HBs level (anti-HBs < 10 IU/L) and 64 (60%) had a protective level (anti-HBs ≥ 10 IU/L). In contrast, among the IDDM children, 44 (69.8%) and 19 (30.2%) did not and did have protective anti-HBs levels, respectively. This difference in anti-HBs concentration between healthy and diabetic children was highly significant (p < 0.001). None of the vaccinated healthy or IDDM children was reactive to HBsAg or total anti-HBc.

Patients and Methods:

A total of 170 children (81 boys, 89 girls) who had been routinely vaccinated against HB were included. Their mean age was 10 ± 2.1 y. The enrolled children were divided into healthy (n = 107) and IDDM (n = 63) cohorts. Body Mass Index and levels of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), total antibody to hepatitis B core antigen (anti-HBc), and anti-HBs were evaluated in all children. In addition, the duration of diabetes mellitus (DM) and levels of glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) were measured in IDDM children.

Conclusion:

Our results are alarming. It appears that the majority of Egyptian diabetic children vaccinated against HB may not have sufficient anti-HBs levels to protect them from HB. Moreover, this study emphasizes the need for a population-based strategy for the management of patients without an anti-HBs protective level after HB vaccination and justifies the need to elucidate the heritability of those children.

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