A survey of temporary freshwaters in the Republic of Belarus revealed the presence of two anostracan species (Chirocephalus josephinae and Drepanosurus hankoi). The two species co-occur in a majority of pools. Their life cycle partly overlaps, with D. hankoi the first to disappear. Morphological variability in Bielorussian populations is briefly discussed and compared with existing information. Two further species were found in Museum collections (Chirocephalus shadini and Streptocephalus torvicornis).