A new genus and species of heteronemertean, Yinia pratensis gen. nov. and sp. nov., collected from low salinity waters (salinity 0.2-0.4 ‰) at Changjiang River Estuary, is described and illustrated. The species possesses a proboscis with an outer circular and an inner longitudinal muscle layer, and is placed in family Lineidae sensu Gibson. The following combination of morphological features distinguishes the new species from any other genera in this family: proboscis with two muscle crosses; dermis without connective tissue layer between gland cells and body wall outer longitudinal muscle layer; rhynchocoel wall circular muscles not interweaving with adjacent body wall longitudinal muscles; foregut with circular somatic muscles and subepithelial gland cell layer; neurochord cells present in central nervous system; caudal cirrus missing; blood system developed into alimentary plexus extending almost the full length of the body. Another significant character is that the lobular excretory cells are extremely well developed which may represent adaptation to water of low salinity.