Population dynamics of Chaoborus flavicans larvae of various instars was studied from November 1986 to December 1987 in a eutrophic, fish-free pond, Japan. First and 2nd instar larvae were observed from late April to late October, indicating a reproductive period of about half a year. C. flavicans overwintered in the 4th instar larvae. In water column samples, total density of all instars was 680-23680 m-2, and pupal density 0-2600 m-2; larvae of the 1st, 2nd, and 3rd instars showed 5-6 density peaks in 1987, suggesting that 5-6 generations occur during a year (peaks of the 4th instar larvae were not clear, probably due to their longer development than those of younger instars). In sediment samples, no 1st and 2nd instar larvae were found, 3rd instar larvae were found occasionally but density of the 4th instar larvae was 280-18600 m-2, and pupal density varied between 0-502 m-2. Fouth instar larvae accumulated in sediment in the cold season and in the water column in the warm season; high temperature and low oxygen concentration were the most important factors limiting the distribution of larvae in the sediment in summer in the NIES pond. The dry weight of total C. flavicans larvae was 0.08-4.2 g m-2 in sediment samples and 24-599 μg l-1 (0.10-2.40 g m-2) in water column samples. Comparisons of maximum densities in the NIES pond in different years and in waters of different trophic status show that density is generally higher in eutrophic than in oligotrophic habitats.