Two lake-dwelling species of paludicolen triclads from Lake Biwa-ko (Honshû, Japan) were studied taxonomically and karyologically. (1) Phagocata kawakatsui Okugawa, 1956, is an epigean species usually inhabiting shallow springs and spring-fed streams in Central Japan. In Lake Biwa-ko, animals were obtained from several bottom stations of the littoral area in the southern part of the northern basin (3-70 m in depth). Chromosome numbers and karyotype: 2x=24 (2m+2sm+2sm+2m+2sm+2m+2sm+2m+2m+2sm+2m+2m). The first pair of metacentric chromosomes is very large in size. (2) Bdellocephala annandalei Ijima et Kaburaki, 1916, an endemic species, is distributed widely in the deep areas of the northern basin (30 to over 100 m in depth). Chromosome numbers and karyotype: 2x=28 (2m+2sm+2sm+2sm+2sm+2m+2m+2m+2m+2m+2m+2m+2m+2m) with the first pair of metacentric chromosomes very long.