The role of bromide and iodide ions in the salinization mapping of the aquifer of Glafkos River basin (northwest Achaia, Greece)


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Abstract

Seawater intrusion causes many problems for groundwater quality, whereas natural remediation is time consuming. However, in cases where groundwater replenishment is feasible, groundwater quality remediation is possible and rapid. The alluvial aquifer in the lowland of the Glafkos River basin, which extends south of Patras city, was for over 30 years the major water source supplying the broader area. Groundwater quality has been degraded due to seawater intrusion, caused by overpumping and generally by inappropriate groundwater management. During the last decade, groundwater quality has been remedied due to diminished groundwater abstractions. The remediation rate was further higher because of rapid discharge of the brackish groundwater, through wells with freely flowing water in the coastal area, where, however, groundwater quality remains low.This paper deals with the hydrogeochemical processes that take place in the area. It is ascertained that ion exchange and mineral dilution processes are dominant. The ion relations between chloride, bromide and iodide, as well as the distribution maps of their concentrations, were used to determine the spatial distribution of the seawater intrusion front. In the lower part of the area in a distance from 1000 and 1500 m from the coast, the rBr-/rCl- ratio showed low values (<2.5 × 10-3) similar to those of seawater. The rI-/rCl- ratio also presented low values (<7 × 10-5), with the lowest one (2.7 × 10-5) detected along the coastline. In the upper part of the area, a gradual change of those ratios was observed upstream, until they receive values similar to those of the surface waters of Glafkos River. Copyright © 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

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