Increased Resistance and Impaired Maximal Vasodilation in Normotensive Vascular Beds of Rats with Coarctation Hypertension

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Abstract

SUMMARY To study the resistance of normotensive vascular beds in coarctation hypertension, we measured perfusion pressures of pump-perfused (blood), innervated, isolated hindlimbs 12 rats (Group A) with 4 weeks of hypertension due to partial constriction of the abdominal aorta above the renal arteries, and three control groups: 11 normotensive rats (Group B) with aorta sham-constricted, nine normotensive rats (Group C) with slight (5%) hindquarters atrophy due to partial constriction of the abdominal aorta below renal arteries, and six rats with two-kidney, one clip Goldblatt hypertension (Group D). After aortic constriction, measured femoral arterial pressures in Group A rats remained normotensive. In hypertensive rats ofGroups A and D, compared to normotensive Group B or C rats, hindlimb pressure-flow curves were displaced toward the pressure axis (p < 0.05). Compared to normotensive rats, drop in hindlimb resistance after acute local nerve section was increased in rats with coarctation hypertension. Residual resistance after maximal vasodilation with intraarterial sodium nitroprusside remained elevated in hypertensive rats of Groups A and D (p < 0.05), as compared to normotensive Group B or C rats; compared Group rats, this residual resistance in the coarcted rats of Group A was increased by 9%. Thus, normotensive vascular beds rats with chronic hypertension caused by aortic coarctation, resistance is elevated. The neurogenic component contributes to this high resistance, and structural vascular changes, indicated by impaired maximal vasodilation, may also contribute to the elevated resistance. It is most unlikely that these resistance changes are attributable to elevated hindlimb intravascular pressures.

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