SUMMARY Circadian changes in plasma renin activity (PRA) and plasma aldosterone concentration (PAC) in normal and hypertensive rats were determined by measurements at 8 a.m., 4 p.m. and 12 midnight (MN). For the normals, PRA and PAC were highest at 4 p.m. Animals made hypertensive by constricting one renal artery with the other kidney intact were studied after 4,5,7 and 10 weeks; the clear-cut circadian rhythm for PRA in normals had disappeared but for PAC the circadian rhythm was present in the 4-, 5- and 10-week groups. Both PRA and PAC were elevated in all four hypertensive groups compared with the normal controls and there was a highly significant correlation between PRA and PAC. The 4 p.m. peak value for PAC was much higher in relation to the 8 a.m. and 12 MN values in the hypertensive animals than in the normals. Sodium balance studies failed to demonstrate any appreciable differences among the groups. When the hypertensive animals were divided into two groups on the basis of the level of hypertension, the rats with moderate hypertension showed an average elevation in PRA which was significant in only the 4- and 7-week groups whereas PRA was elevated in all four groups with severe hypertension. Thus, the present data help to define the activity of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system in two-kidney, one clip hypertension in the rat.