The aim of this study was to analyze the associations of plasma aldosterone and plasma renin activity with the metabolic syndrome and each of its components. We analyzed data from a family based study in the Seychelles made up of 356 participants (160 men and 196 women) from 69 families of African descent. In multivariable models, plasma aldosterone was associated positively (P<0.05) with blood pressure in older individuals (interaction with age, P<0.05) and with waist circumference in men (interaction with sex, P<0.05) and negatively with high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, in particular in individuals with elevated urinary potassium excretion (interaction with urinary potassium, P<0.05); plasma renin activity was significantly associated with triglycerides and fasting blood glucose. Plasma aldosterone, but not plasma renin activity, was associated with the metabolic syndrome per se, independently of the association with its separate components. The observation that plasma renin activity was associated with some components of the metabolic syndrome, whereas plasma aldosterone was associated with other components of the metabolic syndrome, suggests different underlying mechanisms. These findings reinforce previous observations suggesting that aldosterone is associated with several cardiovascular risk factors and also suggest that aldosterone might contribute to the increased cardiovascular disease risk in individuals of African descent with the metabolic syndrome.