Circulating leptin and the local brain renin-angiotensin system (RAS) both contribute to the control of food intake (FI), resting metabolic rate (RMR) and blood pressure (BP), and both have been postulated to contribute to obesity-hypertension. Here we examined the provocative hypothesis that the brain RAS is required for (or mediates) the RMR- and BP-stimulating effects of leptin. To create animals lacking the AT1A receptor specifically in cells expressing the leptin receptor (“KO”), mice with a flox’ed version of the endogenous angiotensin AT1A receptor gene (AT1Aflox) were crossed with mice expressing cre-recombinase via the leptin receptor promoter (ObR-Cre). Body mass, body composition, blood chemistry, glucose tolerance, and FI behaviors were essentially unchanged through 34 weeks of age in mice maintained on standard chow (Teklad 7013). In contrast, anesthetized BP (MAP; control n=9, 91.6 ± 4.1, vs KO n=8, 78.0 ± 3.7 mmHg) and heart rate (351 ± 13, vs 308 ± 11 BPM) were reduced in KO mice (both P<0.05). Further, interscapular brown adipose (BAT SNA, 112 ± 22, vs 22 ± 35 % above baseline at 3 hr) and renal (154 ± 19, vs 53 ± 23 % above baseline at 3 hr) sympathetic nerve activity responses to acute leptin injection (60 μg, i.v.) were completely abolished (both P<0.05). When maintained on a 45% high fat diet (OpenSource D12451) to increase endogenous leptin production, KO mice exhibited accelerated body mass (control n=15, -0.1 ± 0.1, vs KO n=4, +1.7 ± 0.5 g/wk) and fat mass (+2.9 ± 0.5, vs +4.9 ± 1.1 g/5 wk) gains (both P<0.05), likely due to normal FI behaviors but a 18% reduction in RMR (control n=16, 0.196 ± 0.011, vs KO n=7, 0.161 ± 0.004 kcal/hr at 30°C, P<0.05). We conclude that expression of angiotensin AT1A receptors on leptin-sensitive cells is required for the metabolic rate and cardiovascular effects of leptin. Ongoing studies are focused on identifying the brain regions and subsets of leptin receptor-expressing cells in which this RAS-leptin cross-talk occurs, and the directionality and molecular mediators of this interaction. We hypothesize that uncontrolled or pathological activity of the brain RAS may thus help explain the clinically variable effects of leptin, and contribute to the mechanism(s) of selective leptin resistance and obesity-hypertension.