Consumption of high-fructose corn syrup as a sweetener has increased dramatically. Fructose has been implicated in the epidemic of diabetes, obesity and hypertension including salt-sensitive hypertension. However, the mechanisms are poorly understood. The proximal nephron reabsorbs 60-70% of the fluid and Na, and most of the filtered bicarbonate via Na/H exchanger 3. Enhanced proximal nephron transport has been implicated in several forms of hypertension. We hypothesized that fructose stimulates NHE3 activity and enhances the ability of angiotensin II (ANG II) to activate NHE3 in the proximal tubule. To test our hypothesis we isolated and perfused proximal tubules from Sprague Dawley rats. NHE3 activity was measured as the recovery of intracellular pH after an NH4Cl acid pulse using the pH sensitive dye BCECF. The rate of pH recovery was measured in Fluorescent Units per second (FU/sec). In the presence of a 5.5 mM glucose-containing physiological saline the basal rate of pH recovery was 3.1 ± 0.8 FU/sec. When the luminal solution was exchanged to a 0.6 mM glucose + 5 mM fructose-containing physiological saline in a second period, the rate of pH recovery increased to 5 ± 1 FU/sec (p<0.03, n=8).To study whether this effect was due to the addition of fructose or the removal of glucose to the lumen, we performed a separate set of experiments where 5 mM glucose was substituted for 5 mM fructose. In the presence of 0.6 mM glucose the basal rate of pH recovery was 3.6 ± 1.5 FU/sec. When 5 mM fructose was added the rate of pH recovery increased to 5.9 ± 2 FU/sec (p<0.02, n=5). Control experiments showed no differences between periods when 5 mm glucose was added back to the luminal perfusate. Finally, we tested the effect of low concentrations of ANG II in the presence or absence of luminal fructose. In the presence of 5.5 mM glucose, ANG II 10-12 M did not affect the rate of pH recovery (change: -1.1 ± 0.5 FU/sec, n=9). However, in the presence of 5 mM fructose, ANG II increased the rate of pH recovery (change: 4.0 ± 2.2 FU/sec, p< 0.03 n=6). We conclude that acute treatment with fructose stimulates NHE3 activity and enhances the ability of ANG II to activate NHE3 in the proximal tubule. These results may partially explain the mechanism by which a fructose diet induces hypertension.