Background: Recent evidence suggests that vitamin D deficiency is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. However, the relationship between vitamin D deficiency and cardiovascular disease risk factors has not been established.
Objectives: To investigate the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency and its association with body adiposity, metabolic profile, inflammatory biomarkers, blood pressure (BP) and endothelial function in healthy premenopausal women.
Methods: In this cross-sectional study were included 73 adult women who were submitted to the evaluation of: serum levels of 25 hidroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D]; body adiposity; metabolic profile (glucose, insulin, HOMA-IR, leptin, triglycerides and cholesterol); inflammatory biomarkers (adiponectin and C-reactive protein); BP; and endothelial function by serum concentrations of adhesion molecules and by reactive hyperemia index (RHI), determined by peripheral arterial tonometry, using Endo-PAT 2000®. Participants were stratified into 2 groups according to their vitamin D status: with vitamin D deficiency (Group 1; 25 (OH) D < 20ng/ml; n=12), and without vitamin D deficiency (Group 2; 25 (OH) D ≥ 20ng/ml; n=61).
Results: The prevalence of vitamin D deficiency was 16% (12 of 73). Women in Group 1 compared with those in Group 2 were older (36.5±3.2 vs. 30.4±1.1 years; p=0.03) and showed higher values of BMI (28.7±1.4 vs. 25.1±0.7kg/m2; p=0.03); % body fat (35.3±1.7 vs. 31.1±0.7%; p=0.02); glucose (88.3±3.2 vs. 80.2±1.1 mg/dl; p=0.01); HOMA-IR (6.3±0.7 vs. 4.4±0.2; p=0.002); and leptin (29.6±3.5 vs. 20.9±1.7 ng/ml; p=0.04). RHI was lower in participants in Group 1 than in Group 2 (1.7±0.1 vs. 2.1±0.1; p=0.02). After adjustments for age and BMI, women with vitamin D deficiency remained with higher levels of glucose and HOMA-IR, and lower levels of RHI. Systolic and diastolic BP were higher in Group 1 than in Group 2 (110.2 ± 5.1 vs. 102.9 ± 1.4mmHg and 72.8 ± 4,0 vs. 68.6 ± 1.3mmHg, respectively), however without statistical significance. The other variables did not differ between groups.
Conclusions: In the present study, vitamin D deficiency was associated with higher body adiposity, greater insulin resistance and worse endothelial function in women.