Alkaline Phosphatase Inhibitors Attenuate Renovascular Responses to Norepinephrine

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Abstract

Tissue nonspecific alkaline phosphatase (TNAP) contributes to the production of adenosine by the kidney, and A1-receptor activation enhances renovascular responses to norepinephrine. Therefore, we hypothesized that TNAP regulates renovascular responsiveness to norepinephrine. In isolated, perfused rat kidneys, the TNAP inhibitor L-p-bromotetramisole (0.1 mmol/L) decreased renal venous levels of 5′-AMP (adenosine precursor) and adenosine by 61% (P<0.0384) and 62% (P=0.0013), respectively, at 1 hour into treatment and caused a 10-fold rightward shift of the concentration–response relationship to exogenous norepinephrine (P<0.0001). Similarly, 2 other TNAP inhibitors, levamisole (1 mmol/L) and 2,5-dimethoxy-N-(quinolin-3-yl)benzenesulfonamide (0.02 mmol/L), also right shifted the concentration–response relationship to norepinephrine. The ability of TNAP inhibition to blunt renovascular responses to norepinephrine was mostly prevented or reversed by restoring A1-adenosinergic tone with the A1-receptor agonist 2-chloro-N6-cyclopentyladenosine (100 nmol/L). All 3 TNAP inhibitors also attenuated renovascular responses to renal sympathetic nerve stimulation, suggesting that TNAP inhibition attenuates renovascular responses to endogenous norepinephrine. In control propranolol-pretreated rats, acute infusions of norepinephrine (10 μg/kg/min) increased mean arterial blood pressure from 95±5 mm Hg to a peak of 169±4 mm Hg and renovascular resistance from 12±2 mm Hg/mL/min to a peak of 55±12 mm Hg/mL/min; however, in rats also treated with intravenous L-p-bromotetramisole (30 mg/kg), the pressor and renovascular effects of norepinephrine were significantly attenuated (blood pressure: basal and peak, 93±7 and 146±6 mm Hg, respectively; renovascular resistance: basal and peak, 13±2 and 29±5 mm Hg/mL/min, respectively). TNAP inhibitors attenuate renovascular and blood pressure responses to norepinephrine, suggesting that TNAP participates in the regulation of renal function and blood pressure.

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