Individual and Combined Effects of Dietary Factors on Risk of Incident Hypertension: Prospective Analysis From the NutriNet-Santé Cohort

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Abstract

Dietary intake is pointed as one of the major determinants in hypertension development. Data in the area are mostly obtained from cross-sectional studies. We aimed to investigate the prospective association between (1) individual nutritional factors and (2) adherence to the Dietary Approach to Stop Hypertension and the risk of incident hypertension in a large cohort study. We prospectively examined the incidence of hypertension among 80 426 French adults participating in the NutriNet-Santé cohort study. Self-reported sociodemographic, lifestyle health questionnaires and dietary consumption assessed by three 24-hour records were completed at baseline and yearly thereafter. Associations between quartiles (Q) of nutrients and food groups and adherence to Dietary Approach to Stop Hypertension diet and hypertension risk were assessed by multivariable Cox proportional hazards models. During a mean follow-up of 3.4±2.1 years, 2413 cases of incident hypertension were documented. Dietary intakes of sodium (Q4 versus Q1): hazard ratio (HR)=1.17 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.02–1.35), potassium: HR=0.82 (95% CI, 0.72–0.94), animal protein: HR=1.26 (95% CI, 1.11–1.43), vegetable protein: HR=0.85 (95% CI, 0.75–0.95), fiber: HR =0.81 (95% CI, 0.71–0.93), magnesium: HR=0.77 (95% CI, 0.67–0.89), fruit and vegetables: HR=0.85 (95% CI, 0.74–0.97), whole grain: HR=0.84(95% CI, 0.76–0.93), nuts: HR=0.72 (95% CI, 0.63–0.83), and red and processed meat: HR=1.25 (95% CI, 1.11–0.42) were associated with risk of hypertension. Besides, adherence to the Dietary Approach to Stop Hypertension was strongly inversely associated with incident hypertension: (Q4 versus Q1) HR=0.66 (95% CI, 0.58–0.75). Our results confirmed the association of several nutritional factors intake and incident hypertension and highlighted that adopting a global healthy diet could strongly contribute to the prevention of hypertension.

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