Vascular Nox (NADPH Oxidase) Compartmentalization, Protein Hyperoxidation, and Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress Response in Hypertension

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Abstract

Vascular Nox (NADPH oxidase)-derived reactive oxygen species and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress have been implicated in hypertension. However, relationships between these processes are unclear. We hypothesized that Nox isoforms localize in a subcellular compartment-specific manner, contributing to oxidative and ER stress, which influence the oxidative proteome and vascular function in hypertension. Nox compartmentalization (cell fractionation), O2− (lucigenin), H2O2 (amplex red), reversible protein oxidation (sulfenylation), irreversible protein oxidation (protein tyrosine phosphatase, peroxiredoxin oxidation), and ER stress (PERK [protein kinase RNA-like endoplasmic reticulum kinase], IRE1α [inositol-requiring enzyme 1], and phosphorylation/oxidation) were studied in spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR) vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). VSMC proliferation was measured by fluorescence-activated cell sorting, and vascular reactivity assessed in stroke-prone SHR arteries by myography. Noxs were downregulated by short interfering RNA and pharmacologically. In SHR, Noxs were localized in specific subcellular regions: Nox1 in plasma membrane and Nox4 in ER. In SHR, oxidative stress was associated with increased protein sulfenylation and hyperoxidation of protein tyrosine phosphatases and peroxiredoxins. Inhibition of Nox1 (NoxA1ds), Nox1/4 (GKT137831), and ER stress (4-phenylbutyric acid/tauroursodeoxycholic acid) normalized SHR vascular reactive oxygen species generation. GKT137831 reduced IRE1α sulfenylation and XBP1 (X-box binding protein 1) splicing in SHR. Increased VSMC proliferation in SHR was normalized by GKT137831, 4-phenylbutyric acid, and STF083010 (IRE1–XBP1 disruptor). Hypercontractility in the stroke-prone SHR was attenuated by 4-phenylbutyric acid. We demonstrate that protein hyperoxidation in hypertension is associated with oxidative and ER stress through upregulation of plasmalemmal-Nox1 and ER-Nox4. The IRE1–XBP1 pathway of the ER stress response is regulated by Nox4/reactive oxygen species and plays a role in the hyperproliferative VSMC phenotype in SHR. Our study highlights the importance of Nox subcellular compartmentalization and interplay between cytoplasmic reactive oxygen species and ER stress response, which contribute to the VSMC oxidative proteome and vascular dysfunction in hypertension.

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