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To assess possible relationships between sodium balance, angiotensin II (ANG II), and renal active and inactive kallikrein, we studied the effects of sodium loading with 1 % NaCl and chronic ANG II infusion (900 µg/kg per day) on the urinary excretion of total and active kallikrein for 6 days in conscious rats. We determined urinary total, active and inactive kallikrein by measuring kallikrein activity using a kininogenase assay before and after treatment with trypsin (200 µg/ml). Sodium loading produced a sustained increase in urinary total, active and inactive kallikrein excretion. Chronic infusion of ANG II induced a sustained increase in urinary total, active and inactive kallikrein excretion in rats on a regular diet. In rats loaded with sodium, however, ANG II did not induce any further changes in urinary kallikrein excretion. Thus, the present study suggests that both sodium loading and ANG II infusion might stimulate the synthesis of renal kallikrein. In addition, it is suggested that ANG II infusion might stimulate the synthesis of kallikrein, at least partly, via the same mechanism as sodium loading does.