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Blood pressure variability was studied in eight patients with renovascular hypertension (group 1) and eight patients with hypertension and partial deficiency of adrenal zona fasciculata 11-hydroxylase (group 2). Systolic, diastolic and mean blood pressure were found to be higher in group 1 than in group 2 when measured at home (P<0.001), while no difference was measured when blood pressure was taken in the outpatient clinic. Heart rate was higher in group 1 than in group 2 both at home and in the clinic (P<0.005 and P<0.05, respectively); a significant increase was observed only in the hospital clinic for group 2 (P<0.001). No difference in systolic function and left ventricular mass was found between the two groups. Finally, group 2 exhibited a significant increase (P<0.0001) in systolic, diastolic and mean blood pressure in the clinic, compared with that found at home, while group 1 showed a poor increase (P<0.05) in systolic blood pressure only. It is suggested that the enzymatic impairment of adrenal glands in group 2 may play a role in the disparity of blood pressure levels determined at home and in the outpatient clinic. Furthermore, our data suggest that differences in blood pressure measurement at home and in the hospital clinic should be taken into account when screening patients with partial deficiency of 11-hydroxylass.