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Human fetal lung homogenates contain an inactive form of renin which may be revealed by trypsin treatment. When activated, this form of renin has some biochemical similarities with fetal kidney renin: the pH optimum of fetal lung renin is ∼6.5; it is bound by Affigel Blue affinity chromatography resin; and is inhibited by a monoclonal antibody (R-3–36-16) raised to human kidney renin. Inactive renin, partially-purified from both fetal kidney and lung, differs from this in that the renal form is of low-molecular weight (LMW, 45 000 daltons), whereas that from fetal lung is of high molecular weight (HMW, 58 000 daltons).Using a sensitive alkaline phosphatase-anti-alkaline phosphatase (APAAP) procedure with a polyclonal antirenin antibody (R-15), immunoreactive renin in fetal lung was found in vessels in mesenchyme between airways. The pattern of staining was distributed similarly to Factor VIII-related antigen, suggesting localization in endothelial cells.