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We have developed marmoset models for the in vivo evaluation of primate-specific inhibitors of human renin. After acute intravenous administration to normotensive sodium-depleted marmosets, renin inhibitors of different structural types induced a maximum hypotensive response of a magnitude similar to that induced after angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibition. The response was prevented by pretreatment with an ACE inhibitor. A close relationship between the inhibition of plasma renin activity (PRA) and the fall in blood pressure was observed with most of the inhibitors. CGP 29287, a synthetic renin inhibitor, and R-3-36-16, a monoclonal antibody, both induced a selective increase in renal blood flow similar to that induced by an ACE inhibitor. A sustained reduction in blood pressure was observed during continuous administration of CGP 29 287 or R-3-36- 16 over 14 days, despite an increase in immunoreactive renin and an apparent recovery of PRA. A similar blood pressure fall and an increase in plasma renin was observed during continuous administration of an ACE inhibitor. The renin inhibitor CGP 29287 also lowered blood pressure after acute administration to hypertensive marmosets with normal PRA. Our studies demonstrate that renin inhibitors have similar haemodynamic effects to ACE inhibitors, and indicate that they may have a similar antihypertensive efficacy.