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The cardiovascular actions of a renin inhibitor, U-71038 (Boc-Pro-Phe-N-MeHis-Leu y [CHOHCH2]Val-lle-Amp), and of an angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor, captopril, were determined in conscious sodium-depleted cynomolgus monkeys. Cardiac output was measured with a thermodilution technique. The hypotension induced by U-71038 was associated with a significant reduction in total peripheral resistance without alteration in cardiac output or the heart rate. A similar reduction in total peripheral resistance was observed after captopril at a dose which caused hypotension equivalent to that elicited by U-71038. The latter effects were not accompanied by significant alterations in cardiac output or the heart rate. The glomerular filtration rate was measured by the plasma disappearance of 125l-sodium iothalamate. Renin or ACE inhibition adequate to cause equivalent hypotensive responses did not change the glomerular filtration rate to a significantly different degree. The systemic and renal haemodynamic profiles of U-71038 and captopril appear to be similar, suggesting that renin and ACE inhibition elicit fundamentally similar cardiovascular effects in conscious sodium-depleted cynomolgus monkeys via a decreased formation of angiotensin II (Ang II).