Effect of placebo on 24-h non-invasive ambulatory blood pressure

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Twenty-four-hour mean ambulatory blood pressure has been shown to be devoid of a placebo effect. However, whether this is the case for different periods within the 24 h has not been established. In 27 essential hypertensive outpatients, blood pressure was measured in the doctor's office and by 24-h ambulatory blood pressure monitoring after a 3-week wash-out period from antihypertensive treatment (Control) and following 4 weeks of placebo administration. Office systolic and diastolic blood pressures were reduced by placebo (−9.6 ± 2.6 and −3.1 ± 1.7mmHg, P < 0.01, respectively), whereas 24-h mean blood pressure values did not show any significant change. This was not the case for all 24-h subperiods, however, because during the initial 8h, systolic and diastolic blood pressures were slightly (−4.1 ± 9.2 and −2.5 ± 6.4mmHg) but significantly (P < 0.05) lower during placebo than during control. Similar findings were obtained in 14 additional essential hypertensive patients in whom neither placebo nor any other treatment was employed between the two office and 24-h blood pressure measurements. Thus, placebo treatment is associated with a blood pressure reduction in the initial portion of the ambulatory blood pressure profile, probably because of an attenuation of an initial transient alerting response to the procedure. Although so small as to leave the 24-h blood pressure mean unaffected, this may lead to some overestimation of the antihypertensive effect of treatment during an appreciable portion of the circadian blood pressure tracing.

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