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This paper describes the kinetics of the Na+-K+ pump and the Na+-K+-CI- cotransport in sodium-loaded erythrocytes and of the Na+-K+- Cl- cotransport in erythrocyte inside-out vesicles (IOV) from Milan hypertensive (MHS) and normotensive (MNS) rats in order to evaluate the possible role of intracellular factor(s). In intact erythrocytes, no difference was detectable in the Na+-K+ pump kinetics between the two strains while the apparent affinity (Km) of Na+-K+-Cl- cotransport for internal sodium was significantly greater and the maximal rate of sodium transport lower in MHS when compared with MNS rats. IOV, which are depleted of cytoskeleton, showed a bumetanide-sensitive potassium- and chloride-dependent sodium uptake. However, the erythrocyte differences in Na+-K+-CI- cotransport activity and the Km between strains disappeared in IOV, suggesting that the altered sodium transport of MHS erythrocyte might be due to some intracellular factor or a membrane skeleton protein abnormality.