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To investigate the relations of dietary sodium, potassium, calcium and magnesium with urinary calcium excretion.Cross-sectional epidemiologic study of 417 Chinese men with a wide variation of electrolyte intakes.Three consecutive 24-h dietary recall data and three 24-h urinary samples were obtained on the same days. Urinary analyses included calcium, sodium, potassium, magnesium and creatinine. A fasting blood sample was obtained on the first morning, and serum analyses included electrolytes, creatinine and urea nitrogen. Correlation and regression analyses were used to examine the relation between electrolyte intake and calcium excretion.Whilst urinary calcium was not related to dietary calcium, it was significantly correlated with dietary sodium and potassium. A linear relationship was seen between dietary sodium, potassium and urinary calcium. After adjustment for age, body mass index, serum creatinine, dietary calcium intake and other electrolytes, urinary calcium was positively related to dietary sodium and negatively related to dietary potassium. This relation was seen at different levels of dietary calcium intake. The relation between magnesium intake and calcium excretion was inconsistent.These results suggest that sodium and potassium intake influence urinary calcium excretion in normotensive men.