Evaluation of changes in sympathetic nerve activity and heart rate in essential hypertensive patients induced by amlodipine and nifedipine

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ObjectiveTo compare the effects of amlodipine and nifedipine on heart rate and parameters of sympathetic nerve activity during the acute and chronic treatment periods in order to elucidate their influence on cardiovascular outcome.DesignA randomized and single-blind study.MethodsWe performed 24 h ambulatory electrocardiography and blood pressure monitoring of 45 essential hypertensive inpatients. Plasma and urinary catecholamine levels were measured during the control (pretreatment) period, on the first day (acute period) and after 4 weeks (chronic period) of administration of amlodipine and of short-acting nifedipine or its slow-releasing formulation. The low-frequency and high-frequency power spectral densities and low-frequency: high-frequency ratio were obtained by heart rate power spectral analysis.ResultsBlood pressure was significantly and similarly reduced by administrations of amlodipine, short-acting nifedipine and slow-releasing nifedipine during the chronic period. The total QRS count per 24 h, which remained constant during the chronic period of administration of slow-releasing nifedipine and was increased by administration of nifedipine, was decreased by 2.8% by administration of amlodipine. Administration of amlodipine decreased the plasma and urinary norepinephrine levels during the chronic period, whereas the levels were significantly increased by administration of short-acting nifedipine and not changed by administration of slow-release nifedipine. Although low-frequency: high-frequency ratio was increased significantly by administration of short-acting nifedipine and slightly by administration of slow-releasing nifedipine, administration of amlodipine reduced it during the acute and chronic periods.ConclusionsAdministration of amlodipine did not induce an increase in sympathetic nerve activity in essential hypertensive patients during the chronic period, suggesting that beneficial effects on essential hypertension can be expected after its long-term administration. Administration of slow-releasing nifedipine induces milder reflex sympathetic activation than does that of short-acting nifedipine.

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