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Hypertension can be classified as either Mendelian hypertension or essential hypertension, on the basis of the mode of inheritance. The Mendelian forms of hypertension develop as a result of a single gene defect, and as such are inherited in a simple Mendelian manner. In contrast, essential hypertension occurs as a consequence of a complex interplay of a number of genetic alterations and environmental factors, and therefore does not follow a clear pattern of inheritance, but exhibits familial aggregation of cases. In this review, we discuss recent advances in understanding the pathogenesis of both types of hypertension. We review the causal gene defects identified in several monogenic forms of hypertension, and we discuss their possible relevance to the development of essential hypertension. We describe the current approaches to identifying the genetic determinants of human essential hypertension and rat genetic models of hypertension, and summarise the results obtained to date using these methods. Finally, we discuss the significance of environmental factors, such as stress and diet, in the pathogenesis of hypertension, and we describe their interactions with specific hypertension susceptibility genes.