Rapid regulation of adrenomedullin in metabolically compromised vascular smooth muscle cells

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ObjectiveThe prepro-adrenomedullin gene encodes the biologically active peptide adrenomedullin, which acts as a potent vasodilator as well as a modulator of vascular smooth muscle cell growth. We investigated the question of whether adrenomedullin is regulated in response to metabolic perturbations in vascular smooth muscle.Materials and methodsAcute inhibition of glycolysis, leading to partial depletion of cellular ATP, was produced in cultured rat aortic vascular smooth muscle cells by replacing glucose with 2-deoxyglucose. Solution hybridization/RNase protection analysis was used to quantitate changes in expression of the prepro-adrenomedullin messenger RNA and a specific radioimmunoassay was used to assess levels of secreted adrenomedullin.ResultsAcute incubation of rat aortic vascular smooth muscle cells with 2-deoxyglucose caused a rapid and sustained induction of low basal levels of adrenomedullin messenger RNA, which reached twice the control levels by 1 h and four times control levels by 6 h. The induction of adrenomedullin messenger RNA expression was dependent upon de-novo gene transcription and was reversed by the re-introduction of glucose. Despite the sustained increase in adrenomedullin messenger RNA, secretion of immunoreactive-adrenomedullin from vascular smooth muscle cells was reduced by as much as 75% and paralleled the inhibition of radiolabeled aminoacid incorporation into protein during glycolytic inhibition; both parameters recovered towards control levels following re-introduction of glucose.ConclusionsThe rapid and reversible activation of the adrenomedullin gene and inhibition of adrenomedullin peptide release in response to metabolic inhibition suggest that adrenomedullin represents a novel localized mechanism that may modulate regional blood flow and vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation in response to perturbations of normal metabolism.

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