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To study the association between polymorphisms in the angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) gene and angiotensinogen (AGT) gene and hypertension and/or type 2 diabetes in a community population.The insertion (I)/deletion (D) polymorphism of the ACE gene and the M235T polymorphism of the AGT gene were genotyped in 773 nondiabetic individuals with hypertension, 193 normotensive patients with type 2 diabetes, 243 patients with type 2 diabetes and hypertension, and in 820 normotensive control individuals identified in a community-based study.The DD genotype was associated with hypertension in individuals less than 70 years [odds ratio (OR) = 1.54, confidence interval (CI) = 1.09–2.18] and remained so when patients with type 2 diabetes were excluded from the analysis (OR = 1.45, Cl = 1.01–2.09). The strongest association was with the combination of type 2 diabetes and hypertension (OR = 2.19, Cl = 1.09–4.38). There was no association with type 2 diabetes without hypertension. No association was observed between the M235T variant or the 3′-microsatellite polymorphism of the AGT gene and hypertension.The D-allele of the ACE gene ID polymorphism increases susceptibility to hypertension, particularly when associated with type 2 diabetes. No association was observed between the M235T variant or 3′-microsatellite polymorphism of the AGT gene and hypertension.