The tissue renin-angiotensin system in rats with fructose- induced hypertension: overexpression of type 1 angiotensin II receptor in adipose tissue

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ObjectiveFructose feeding induces hypertension, insulin-resistance and hypertriglyceridemia in Sprague-Dawley rats. The mechanisms of fructose-induced hypertension are as yet unknown. Here we investigate the effects of fructose feeding and of varying salt intake on blood pressure, glucose tolerance, plasma renin activity, and tissue angiotensinogen, renin, and AT1 receptor mRNA levels in this model of hypertension.Design and methodsTo investigate the role of the renin-angiotensin system in fructose-induced hypertension we measured angiotensinogen, renin and angiotensin II type 1 (AT1) receptor mRNA levels in tissues of Sprague-Dawley rats that were fed either standard rat chow or a diet containing 66% fructose.ResultsBlood pressure (P <0.05) and triglyceride (P <0.01) levels were significantly greater in the fructosefed animals. Plasma glucose and insulin responses to an oral glucose load were significantly greater (P <0.05) in fructose-fed than control rats. Angiotensinogen mRNA levels in liver and fat, and renin mRNA levels in kidney did not differ between fructose-fed and control animals. Levels of AT1 receptor mRNA were significantly greater in the fat obtained from fructose-fed rats than in that from control rats (P <0.05), but this was not so in the kidney. To determine whether fructose-induced hypertension is dependent on dietary salt content, rats were fed standard rat chow and a fructose-enriched diet with low and high sodium chloride concentrations. Blood pressure increased significantly (P <0.05) only in the fructose-fed rats receiving the high-salt diet. Similarly, increased AT1 receptor mRNA levels were observed only in the fructosefed rats that were maintained on the high-salt diet.ConclusionsFructose feeding induces hypertension in normal- or high-salt fed animals and it is associated with an increased expression of the AT1 receptor in adipose tissue. These findings suggest that AT1 receptors might play a role in the pathophysiology of metabolic and hemodynamic abnormalities induced by fructose feeding.

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