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Blood pressure is an important determinant of the risk of macro- and microvascular vascular complications in patients with type 2 diabetes. Current European guidelines for the management of hypertension recommend lowering blood pressure in patients with type 2 diabetes to reduce the risk of cardiovascular events. The Action in Diabetes and Vascular Disease: Preterax and Diamicron MR Controlled Evaluation (ADVANCE) trial (n = 11 140), is the first trial designed to address the issue of whether routine blood pressure lowering with the fixed combination of perindopril/indapamide is beneficial in patients with diabetes with a broad range of baseline blood pressure values. In addition, it aimed to determine if clinical benefit is achieved over and above that observed with background angiotension-converting enzyme inhibitor therapy. In the perindopril/indapamide arm, the reduction in blood pressure led to significant clinical benefits in patients with type 2 diabetes, irrespective of baseline blood pressure values, and subsequently improved mortality rates, and macro- and microvascular outcomes, beyond the improvements associated with patients' existing antihypertensive therapies. ADVANCE is a robust well-designed trial, the results of which are directly applicable to current clinical practice. The ADVANCE study defines the relevant blood pressure goals for patients with type 2 diabetes who are at high risk of cardiovascular events and underscores the benefits of aggressive blood pressure reduction even in normotensive patients with diabetes. It is likely that these findings will have a significant impact on the management of patients with type 2 diabetes. In view of the evidence indicating that clinical benefits obtained with the perindopril/indapamide combination can be expected even in patients who are normotensive, vascular risk rather than initial blood pressure should be employed to determine appropriate treatment protocols in patients with type 2 diabetes.