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To evaluate blood pressure (BP) by age and gender and its association with other cardiovascular risk factors and birth weight in scholars 10 to 15 years old of public schools in Rio de Janeiro.A cross-sectional study of a population sample of 1722 students was evaluated at their schools, 742 (43.1%) males (M), and 980 (56.9%) females (F). Population distribution by age and gender was: 10 yo (n = 108, 49 M/59F), 11 yo (n = 242, 106 M 136F), 12 yo (n = 368, 169 M/104F), 13 yo (n = 397, 161 M/236F), 14 yo (n = 346, 153 M/193F), 15 yo (n = 261, 104 M/157F). BP was measured three times by oscilometric method; height, weight, abdominal circumference (AC), and information about physical activity, sedentary leisure time, smoking, family history (FH), and birth weight were obtained. High BP was defined when systolic BP (SBP) and/or diastolic BP (DBP)> = p95 for age, gender and height percentile; overweight/obesity (O/O) when body mass index (BMI)> = p85 for age and gender.SBP means were higher in males in all ages (p < 0.04), except for age 12. Overall prevalence of high BP was 8.5%, 10.5% M X 6.9% F (p < 0.01), with no difference by age. Among hypertensives, 56.2% had isolated systolic hypertension (ISH), 23.3% isolated diastolic hypertension and 20.5% systo-diastolic hypertension.High normal BP (>=p90 and < p95) was present in 5.6% and 2.6% for SBP and DBP, respectively. Compared with normotensives, those with high BP showed higher O/O and FH for O/O rates (17.4% X 26.7%, p < 0.02; 45.0%X54.5%;p < 0.04, respectively) and lower birth weight (3,229 ± 0.613 g X 3,076 ± 0.600 g, p = 0.01). No significant differences were observed for other variables. In multivariate logistic regression, male gender (OR 1.677, 95%CI 1.113–2.526, p < 0.02), BMI (OR 1.079, 95%CI 1.034–1.126, p < 0.001), FH of myocardial infarction (OR 2.077, 95%CI 1.113–2.526, p = 0.001), and birth weight (OR 0.616, 95%CI 0.443–0.857, p < 0.01) were associated with high BP.In Brazilian adolescents 10–15 years old, high BP was more prevalent among males, and ISH was the most frequent presentation. High BP was associated with male gender, higher BMI, family history of myocardial infarction and lower birth weight.