Impact of De Novo and Preexisting Inflammatory Bowel Disease on the Outcome of Orthotopic Liver Transplantation

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Abstract

Background:

Diarrhea is a common problem in the setting of solid-organ transplantation, especially orthotopic liver transplant (OLT). De novo or preexisting inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is one of the differential diagnoses. The aims of our study were to evaluate the frequency of de novo IBD in patients with OLT and to assess the impact of de novo IBD and preexisting IBD on the outcome of OLT.

Methods:

This case–control study included all eligible patients who had OLT from January 2001 to December 2009. The study group included all patients who had a biopsy-proven diagnosis of IBD after their OLT (the de novo IBD group). The control groups included patients with existing IBD before OLT and those without IBD before and after OLT. The groups were matched based on their underlying diagnoses of end-stage liver disease. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed.

Results:

A total of 66 subjects were included in the study. The mean age was 45.4 ± 13.4 years, with 44 (66.7%) being male. Fifteen patients (23%) had de novo IBD, 21 (32%) had existing IBD before OLT, and 30 (45%) had no underlying IBD before or after OLT. There were no significant differences between the 2 IBD groups in any of the IBD characteristics, including IBD medications. Subjects without IBD were more likely to receive mycophenolate mofetil within 1 week of OLT than those in the de novo or preexisting IBD (70% versus 23% P = 0.018). Episodes of graft rejection were more commonly observed in subjects with preexisting IBD (52%) than de novo IBD (27%) or no IBD (20%) (P = 0.045). The rate of retransplantation was highest in the de novo IBD group followed by the preexisting IBD group and non-IBD group (20% versus 14% versus 0%; P = 0.029). Combined together, patients with IBD in the setting of OLT were more likely to be retransplanted than those without IBD (16.7% versus 0%, P = 0.045). In multivariate analysis, we found that patients with IBD were 6.7 (95% confidence interval, 1.9–23.9) times more likely to have an adverse outcome after liver transplant (P = 0.004), after adjusting for primary sclerosing cholangitis.

Conclusions:

De novo IBD can occur in patients after OLT. De novo IBD and preexisting IBD were found to be associated with a higher risk for graft failure, suggesting that early diagnosis and closer monitoring of the patients at risk are critical.

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