Clostridium difficile (CD) is an anaerobic, spore-forming bacillus that is responsible for a spectrum of gastrointestinal illness ranging from asymptomatic carriage to toxic megacolon and death. The prevalence of CD infection is increasing in both hospitalized and community-based inflammatory bowel disease populations. Standard antibiotic therapy fails to cure or prevent recurrence in more than 50% of patients, thus increasing the need for alternative therapies. Recently, fecal microbiota transplantation has received renewed attention as a therapy for refractory or recurrent CD infection. A high success rate combined with a favorable safety profile makes this therapy an attractive option for patients who have failed standard antibiotic therapy. Increasingly, this therapy is used in patients with CD infection and inflammatory bowel disease, as the combination of active inflammation and toxin-producing CD provides a challenging mix for clinicians.