Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a complex civilization disease and has a prevalence of upto 0.2% in the Asian countries. The disease preferentially manifests in the second and third decade of life. Oral soft tissue lesions can precede or occur concomitantly with the intestinal symptoms. It was reported that IBD patients have higher prevalence of dental caries than healthy controls as a result of nutritional deficiencies and changes in salivary and microbiological conditions in the oral cavity. Prior studies showed a higher prevalence of aphthous ulcer and dental caries. There is only little information about the oral health status of UC patient, as often they are dealt only by the general physician. The aim of this study was to assess the dental caries and periodontal disease status in patients with ulcerative colitis and provide sufficient oral health care need to reduce the oral symptoms.Methods:
After obtaining ethical clearance from the institutional review board of Tagore dental college and hospital, a cohort study was conducted upon 50 new UC patients. Oral hygiene habits, Oral soft tissue changes, the decayed, missing and filled tooth surface (DMF—S) index, periodontal status (CPI) index and clinical attachment loss (CAL) were evaluated in each patient. After recording the oral health status, the patients were given oral hygiene instructions (along with regular use of medicated mouth wash), dental caries were filled, topical fluorides and oral prophylaxis were given on monthly basis and were followed up.Results:
Initially before the oral treatment there was a significantly higher prevalence of dental caries, severe gingivitis and 28 oral lesions (a total in all the 50 patients) were found. On the consequent appointments, a good prognosis was found in the oral health of patients who followed the oral hygiene regimen. After 10th month appointment the oral lesions went down by 12, no new dental caries and the periodontal index status was 0.2 to 0.9.Conclusions:
Patients with UC have a higher prevalence of dental caries and oral lesions compared with a healthy control group. Altered dietary habits and malabsorption may probably be the main cause for this condition. Strict oral hygiene and the regular use of fluoride treatment for prevention of dental disease appear justified.