Smoking cessation is important clinical outcome in patients with Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD) given its negative impact on disease course. Better understanding of successful methods of smoking cessation among IBD patients are necessary to improve quit rates.Methods:
Individuals with IBD and a current or former smoking history who had previously attempted to quit smoking were included for analysis. Patients were excluded if they were never smokers, had no associated information on smoking cessation methods recorded, or were current smokers who had never attempted to quit smoking. Binary logistic regression was used to model the relationship between smoking success (coded as former smokers compared to current smokers) and age, history of anxiety or depression, history of substance abuse, number of quit attempts, and number of smoking cessation methods used. An unadjusted alpha of 0.05 level of significance was used for all tests.Results:
There were a total of 219 former smokers and 67 current smokers included for analysis after exclusion of 2 individuals for missing information, 14 current smokers for no attempted smoking cessation, and 1 individual with a diagnosis of indeterminate colitis. Current smokers were younger (P value = 0.003), more likely to have multiple quit attempts (P value = 0.002), and more like to have comorbid anxiety/depression (P value = 0.001) and/or substance abuse (P value = 0.002). Current smokers were generally more likely to have tried all smoking cessation methods, except the nicotine spray and other methods. Most former smokers used nothing or “cold turkey” methods to quit smoking (68.9%), followed by the nicotine patch (11.4%), and e-cigarettes (10%). Factors associated with successful smoking cessation were then evaluated with binary logistic regression. The overall model was statistically significant (LR Chi-square = 51.424, df = 2, P < 0.001). Patients had significantly higher odds of successfully quitting smoking if they were without a history of substance abuse (OR = 0.292, 95% CI, 0.108–0.785) and if they used less smoking cessation methods (OR = 0.097, 95% CI, 0.048–0.195).Conclusions:
Among patients with IBD who have attempted to quit smoking, cold turkey or no smoking cessation adjunct was the most effective method to quit. Patients who are successful at quitting smoking are more likely to have no history of substance abuse as well as fewer smoking cessation aids used.