*Department of Gastroenterology, Pediatric Inflammatory Bowel Disease Research Center, Children's Hospital of Fudan University, Shanghai, China;†Department of Pediatric Surgery, Children's Hospital of Fudan University, Shanghai, China; and‡Department of Pathology, Sir Run Run Shaw Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Hangzhou, Zheijiang, China.
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Background:Infantile-onset inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) comprises rare and clinically severe disorders. We examined the phenotypes and genetic causes of patients with infantile-onset IBD from a tertiary medical center.Methods:We enrolled 38 patients with infantile-onset IBD and applied standardized treatment with medical, surgical, and supportive care. Targeted sequencing and whole-exome sequencing were performed. Clinical data were retrieved from medical records.Results:Median age of onset of disease was 12.5 (interquartile range: 7.0–30.0) days. All patients had diarrhea, whereas 18 (47.4%) patients reported hematochezia. Thirteen (34.2%) patients had oral ulcers, 15 (39.5%) patients had perianal abscess, and 9 (52.9%) female patients had rectovaginal fistula. Six (18.8%) patients had intestinal strictures and 4 (12.1%) patients had perforation. Twelve (31.6%) patients underwent surgical procedures. Median age of surgery was 272.5 days, and cumulative probability for surgery during first year was 32.1%. One-year mortality of patients was 25.9%. Sequencing showed 24 (63.2%) patients had causative IL10RA mutations, 1 patient had EPCAM mutation, 1 patient had TNFAIP3 mutation, and 1 patient had LRBA mutation, whereas causative mutations cannot be identified in the other 11 (28.9%) patients. Umbilical cord blood stem cell transplantation has been applied to 8 cases with IL10RA mutations, of whom 5 (71.4%) patients have achieved clinical remission.Conclusions:Patients with infantile-onset IBD had severe phenotype and early onset. Medical, surgical interventions with supportive care are essential. High-throughput sequencing ensures appropriate treatment. Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation can be performed in selected patients with IL10RA mutations (see Video Abstract, Supplemental Digital Content 1, http://links.lww.com/IBD/B657).