Liver Abscess in Patients With Leukemia and Prolonged Neutropenia

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Patients with leukemia are at a high risk of developing disseminated invasive fungal and/or bacterial infections due to prolonged neutropenia, which is usually caused by myelosuppressive chemotherapy. Disseminated fungal infections in the setting of prolonged neutropenia result in high mortality. The most effective means to improve patient outcome is early diagnosis and treatment when preventive measures have failed. The most common fungal pathogens are Candida spp and Aspergillus spp. Rare causes of such infection are by Mucor and Entomopthorales spp, Fusarium spp, and Scedosporium spp, each having unique epidemiology, pathophysiology, and treatment options. We present a case of disseminated hepatic, pulmonary, bowel, and appendix mucormycosis successfully treated with antifungal therapy and without surgical intervention. We also review the literature regarding hepatic abscesses and disseminated invasive fungal infections along with current treatment strategies for Mucor infections.

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