Dentine decalcification and smear layer removal by different ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid and 1-hydroxyethane-1,1-diphosphonic acid species

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Abstract

Aim

To compare solutions of di- and tetrasodium ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) and 1-hydroxyethane-1,1-diphosphonic acid (HEDP) regarding their ability to solubilize calcium from dentine and remove smear layer.

Methodology

Solutions with a molarity corresponding to that of 17% Na2EDTA (pH adjusted to 8.5) were prepared by dissolving Na2 and Na4 salts of HEDP (etidronate), or Na4EDTA in deionized water. Standardized root dentine discs covered by a smear layer were prepared from human third molars. These discs (n = 10 per group) were immersed in test solutions or phosphate-buffered saline for 1 min. The dissolved Ca2+ was determined by atomic absorption spectroscopy, apparently opened dentinal tubules by laser scanning microscopy and automated image analysis. Ca2+ values were compared between groups by parametric, tubular areas by nonparametric methods, α = 0.05.

Results

Solutions prepared from the tetrasodium salts were alkaline (pH 11.3–11.4), whilst counterparts made from the disodium salts were acidic. The EDTA solutions dissolved more calcium than the HEDP counterparts (P < 0.05); solutions prepared with the disodium salts dissolved more calcium than those made from the tetrasodium salts (P < 0.05). There was a high correlation between dissolved calcium and the apparently opened tubular areas (Spearman's ρ = 0.81). Differences between groups regarding opened tubules were similar to those observed regarding the Ca2+ values, with a slightly reduced discerning power due to high variance.

Conclusion

Calcium chelation and thus smear layer removal by EDTA and HEDP are influenced by pH.

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