Predictors of uropathogens other thanEscherichia coliin patients with community-onset acute pyelonephritis

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A constant reduction in the incidence of community-onset acute pyelonephritis (CO-APN) caused by Escherichia coli has been shown with a parallel increase incidence caused by other organisms. Therefore, we evaluated the risk factors and outcome of non-E. coli as uropathogens in patients with community-onset APN.


As a part of a nationwide multicentre surveillance study conducted in Korea, a total of 416 patients with CO-APN were collected with their epidemiological, antibiotic treatment and outcome data.


The risk factors and outcomes of non-E. coli as uropathogens were evaluated in a total of 416 patients with culture-confirmed CO-APN. Non-E. coli caused 127 cases (30.5%) of CO-APN. CO-APN caused by non-E. coli resulted in higher inappropriate empirical therapy (38.6% vs. 20.1%, p < 0.001), longer hospital stay (12.6 days vs. 6.7 days, p = 0.005) and higher 30-day mortality (9.4% vs. 3.8% p = 0.020) compared with CO-APN caused by E. coli. Multivariate analyses showed that male gender (OR, 3.48; CI, 2.13–5.67; p < 0.001), underlying haematological disease (OR, 5.32; CI, 1.17–24.254; p = 0.031), underlying benign prostate hyperplasia (OR, 2.61; CI, 1.02–6.74; p = 0.046), chronic indwelling urethral catheter (OR, 6.34; CI, 1.26–31.84; p = 0.025) and admission history in the previous 6 months (OR, 2.12; CI, 1.23–3.58; p = 0.005) were predictors for CO-APN caused by a non-E. coli isolate.


Community-onset APN caused by non-E. coli represents a distinct subset of urinary tract infections with worse outcomes. The defined risk factors related with non-E. coli should be taken into consideration when empirical antibiotic therapy is prescribed in patients with community-onset APN.

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