In this paper, we propose a complete framework for 3D geometry modeling and processing that uses only fast geodesic computations. The basic building block for these techniques is a novel greedy algorithm to perform a uniform or adaptive remeshing of a triangulated surface. Our other contributions include a parameterization scheme based on barycentric coordinates, an intrinsic algorithm for computing geodesic centroidal tessellations, and a fast and robust method to flatten a genus-0 surface patch. On large meshes (more than 500,000 vertices), our techniques speed up computation by over one order of magnitude in comparison to classical remeshing and parameterization methods. Our methods are easy to implement and do not need multilevel solvers to handle complex models that may contain poorly shaped triangles.