Analysis of deformable two-dimensional shapes is an important problem, encountered in numerous pattern recognition, computer vision and computer graphics applications. In this paper, we address three major problems in the analysis of non-rigid shapes: similarity, partial similarity, and correspondence. We present an axiomatic construction of similarity criteria for deformation-invariant shape comparison, based on intrinsic geometric properties of the shapes, and show that such criteria are related to the Gromov-Hausdorff distance. Next, we extend the problem of similarity computation to shapes which have similar parts but are dissimilar when considered as a whole, and present a construction of set-valued distances, based on the notion of Pareto optimality. Finally, we show that the correspondence between non-rigid shapes can be obtained as a byproduct of the non-rigid similarity problem. As a numerical framework, we use the generalized multidimensional scaling (GMDS) method, which is the numerical core of the three problems addressed in this paper.