Mucocutaneous manifestation of pediatric human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) in relation to degree of immunosuppression: a study of a West African population

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Abstract

Background

Mucocutaneous lesions occur at one point or the other during the course of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) disease. These lesions can be the initial presenting features but could also be a pointer to the presence of immunosuppression.

Aim and objectives

This study was carried out to determine the pattern of mucocutaneous manifestation in children who have human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) in relation to their level of immunosuppression.

Methods

One hundred children who were HIV seropositive aged 18 months to 16 years were evaluated for mucocutaneous lesions, and their degree of immunosuppression was also determined using total CD4+ count or CD4+ percentage. Another group of age and gender matched 100 HIV-negative children were also examined for mucocutaneous lesions.

Results

The mucocutaneous manifestations were more common among the subjects compared to controls (P = 0.000). The overall prevalence among the seropositive and seronegative subjects was 64% and 12% respectively. The prevalence of mucocutaneous findings in children with severe, moderate, and no immunosuppression were 93.8%, 55.2%, and 46.2%, respectively. The lesions were significantly more common among those with moderate and severe immunosuppression compared to those with no immunosuppression (P = 0.000). Multiple lesions were more frequent among those with severe immunosuppression. Oral thrush was the most frequent lesion (25.6%) among the subjects followed by pruritic papular eruption (20.7%) and dermatophytosis (14.1%). Severe and atypical forms of dermatophytosis and herpes ulcer were also observed among the subjects.

Conclusion

This study shows that mucocutaneous lesions are common in children with HIV/AIDS and could be an early indicator of immune suppression. It is important to recognize them early in order to enhance early case detection and treatment.

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