Angiogenesis drives psoriasis pathogenesis

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Abstract

Summary

Psoriasis pathogenesis is closely associated with disease-inducing Th1 and Th17 cells. Yet, several studies suggest that aberrant keratinocyte or endothelial cell signalling significantly contributes to disease manifestation. Histological hallmarks of psoriatic skin include the infiltration of multiple immune cells, keratinocyte proliferation and increased dermal vascularity. Formation of new blood vessels starts with early psoriatic changes and disappears with disease clearance. Several angiogenic mediators like vascular endothelial growth factor, hypoxia-inducible factors, angiopoietins and pro-angiogenic cytokines, such as tumour necrosis factor (TNF), interleukin (IL)-8 and IL-17, are up-regulated in psoriasis development. Contact- and mediator-dependent factors derived from keratinocytes, mast cells and immune cells may contribute to the strong blood vessel formation of psoriasis. New technologies and experimental models provide new insights into the role of angiogenesis in psoriasis pathogenesis. Interestingly, many therapies target not only immune cells, but also protein structures of endothelial cells. Here we summarize the role of pro-angiogenic factors in psoriasis development and discuss angiogenesis as a potential target of novel therapies.

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