Usefulness of overnight pulse oximeter as the sleep assessment tool to assess the 6-year risk of road traffic collision: evidence from the Taiwan Bus Driver Cohort Study

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Abstract

Background:

In order to support health service organizations in arranging a system for prevention of road traffic collisions (RTC), it is important to study the usefulness of sleep assessment tools. A cohort study was used to evaluate the effectiveness of subjective and objective sleep assessment tools to assess for the 6-year risk of both first RTC event only and recurrent RTC events.

Methods:

The Taiwan Bus Driver Cohort Study (TBDCS) recruited 1650 professional drivers from a large bus company in Taiwan in 2005. The subjects were interviewed in person, completed the sleep assessment questionnaires and had an overnight pulse oximeter survey. Moreover, this cohort of drivers was linked to the National Traffic Accident Database (NTAD) and researchers found 139 new RTC events from 2005 to 2010. Primary outcomes were traffic collisions from NTAD, nocturnal oxygen desaturation index (ODI) from pulse oximeter, Pittsburg sleeping quality score, Epworth daytime sleepiness score, Snore Outcomes Survey score and working patterns from questionnaires. A Cox proportional hazards model and an extended Cox regression model for repeated events were performed to estimate the hazard ratio for RTC.

Results:

The RTC drivers had increased ODI4 levels (5.77 ± 4.72 vs 4.99 ± 6.68 events/h; P = 0.008) and ODI3 levels (8.68 ± 6.79 vs 7.42 ± 7.94 events/h; P = 0.007) in comparison with non-RTC drivers. These results were consistent regardless of whether ODI was evaluated as a continuous or a categorical variable. ODI4 and ODI3 levels increased the 6-year RTC risks among professional drivers even after adjusting for age, education, history of cardiovascular disease, caffeine intake, sleeping pills used, bus driving experience and shift modes. Moreover, there was an increased trend for ODI between the stratification of the number of RTCs in comparison with the non-RTC group. In the extended Cox regression models for repeated RTC events with the Anderson and Gill intensity model and Prentice-Williams-Petersen model, measurement of ODI increased hazards of the subsequent RTC events.

Conclusion:

This study showed that an increase in the 6-year risk of RTC was associated with objective measurement of ODI for a sign of sleep-disordered breathing (SDB), but was not associated with self-reported sleeping quality or daytime sleepiness. Therefore, the overnight pulse oximeter is an effective sleep assessment tool for assessing the risk of RTC. Further research should be conducted regarding measures to prevent against SDB among professional drivers.

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