Obesity-induced hypoadiponectinaemia: the opposite influences of central and peripheral fat compartments

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Abstract

Background and Aims:

The substantial reduction in adiponectin concentration among obese individuals seems to depend on fat distribution and is a marker of metabolic and adipose tissue dysfunction. We aimed to: (i) address whether abdominal fat from different compartments (visceral, deep subcutaneous abdominal and superficial subcutaneous abdominal) and gluteofemoral fat are independently associated with blood adiponectin concentration; and (ii) investigate whether abdominal (proxied by waist circumference) and gluteofemoral fat (proxied by hip circumference) accumulation causally determine blood adiponectin concentration.

Methods:

To investigate the independent association of abdominal and gluteofemoral fat with adiponectin concentration, we used multivariable regression and data from 30-year-old adults from the 1982 Pelotas Birth Cohort (n = 2,743). To assess the causal role of abdominal and gluteofemoral fat accumulation on adiponectin concentration, we used Mendelian randomization and data from two consortia of genome-wide association studies—the GIANT (n > 210 000) and ADIPOGen consortia (n = 29 347).

Results:

In the multivariable regression analysis, all abdominal fat depots were negatively associated with adiponectin concentration, specially visceral abdominal fat [men: β = -0.24 standard unit of log adiponectin per standard unit increase in abdominal fat; 95% confidence interval (CI) = -0.31, -0.18; P = 8*10-13; women: β = -0.31; 95% CI = -0.36, -0.25; P = 7*10-27), whereas gluteofemoral fat was positively associated with adiponectin concentration (men: β = 0.13 standard unit of log adiponectin per standard unit increase in gluteofemoral fat; 95% CI = 0.03, 0.22; P = 0.008; women: β = 0.24; 95% CI = 0.17, 0.31; P = 7*10-11). In the Mendelian randomization analysis, genetically-predicted waist circumference was inversely related to blood adiponectin concentration (β = -0.27 standard unit of log adiponectin per standard unit increase in waist circumference; 95% CI = -0.36, -0.19; P = 2*10-11), whereas genetically-predicted hip circumference was positively associated with blood adiponectin concentration (β = 0.17 standard unit of log adiponectin per standard unit increase in hip circumference; 95% CI = 0.11, 0.24; P = 1*10-7).

Conclusions:

These results support the hypotheses that there is a complex interplay between body fat distribution and circulating adiponectin concentration, and that whereas obesity-induced hypoadiponectinaemia seems to be primarily attributed to abdominal fat accumulation, gluteofemoral fat accumulation is likely to exert a protective effect.

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