Recent data implicate that cytokine gene polymorphisms are important in pathogenesis of various neoplastic and nonneoplastic human diseases, and it was recently suggested that polymorphisms in interleukin (IL)-6 might increase the risk of gynecological malignancies, including cervical carcinomas. The aim of this case–control study is to compare the IL-6 polymorphisms in cervical cancer patients and healthy controls and to assess whether any of these polymorphisms would increase the risk of developing cervical cancer. The material in this case–control study consists of 56 patients with cervical carcinoma and 253 population-based control subjects, all ethnic Brazilian women. Control subjects were cancer-free women, following a negative cervical cytology and colposcopy. IL-6 genotyping was performed using a polymerase chain reaction–based restriction fragment length polymorphism. Distribution of the GG, GC, and CC genotypes in cases and controls was significantly different (P = 0.033). Compared with the GG genotype as reference, the adjusted odds ratio for the combined GC and CC genotypes in cancer patients was 1.90 (95% confidence interval, 1.1–3.4). These data suggest that women carrying at least one C genotype in their IL-6 promoter region (−174G→C) are at higher risk of developing cervical cancer.